Sunday, May 24, 2020

Commentary on Margaret Thatcher, Statecraft Strategies...

Book Report: Statecraft: Strategies For A Changing World, By Margaret Thatcher The late Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997), in his book Russian Thinkers, wrote something thoughtful and piercing - ...that there could not in principle be any simple or final answer to any genuine human problem; that if a question was serious and indeed agonizing, the answer could never be clear-cut or neat.(Volume 19 - Issue 17, August 17 - 30, 2002 Indias National Magazine from the publishers of THE HINDU) Reflections on international relations and national security by the former British prime minister, the book reaffirms Thatchers long-held attitude in a strong military, firm statecraft, and coalition partnership with America. In her outlook, the 1990s offer a caution to the United Kingdom and the other Western countries. After winning the Cold War, the democratic systems let down their guard; they paid attention on human rights and paid out less on protection, let their intelligence-gathering hard work slip, and listened to open-minded politicians who thought that globalization would bring worldwide peace. In reply, Thatcher advises a return to the exercise of state power in chase of the national interest. But her essays are not simple confirmations of actual politic statecraft. Like Ronald Reagan, Thatcher has a strong ethical pledge to democratic system, freedom, the rule of law, and other Western ideals; her world outlook holds both power politics and democratic community. Certainly, she often

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Military Free Essays

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Military Proposal for MSA 685 Project Ronnie Heare Dr. Robert E. Weltzer Jr. We will write a custom essay sample on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Military or any similar topic only for you Order Now Table of Contents Abstract3 Problem Statement4 Purpose of Study4 Literature Review5 Methodology8 References9 Literature Review Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is becoming an ever increasing problem in today’s military. This disorder is nothing new and has affected veterans from World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and Desert Shield/Desert Storm. There are particularly good descriptions of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the medical literature on combat veterans of World War II and on Holocaust survivors. (Veterans Affairs Fact Sheet, 2006). But with the many deployments in the past several years to Iraq and Afghanistan, with many soldiers going over for the third or fourth deployments, the pressures mounting on today’s military has become too much for some to handle. The main difference between past wand present wars is the ever increasing number of women who are seeing combat on the front lines. Women are being tasked to fill more and more lethal combat roles as the war on terror continues and women appear to be more susceptible to PTSD than their male counterparts. Studies indicate that many of these women suffer from more pronounced and debilitating forms of PTSD than men, a worrisome finding in a nation that remembers how many traumatized troops got back from Vietnam and turned to drugs and violence, alcohol and suicide. (Scharnberg, 2005). The government is extremely concerned about this and has begun doing studies on how to combat the lingering effects of this disorder. Half of the women will be treated to long term therapy in which they will relive the traumatic events that led up to PTSD in hopes that their emotional distress will decrease over time and that their memory of the event is no longer traumatic. The other half of the women will be treated with a therapy that will focus on their life now and how to deal with the traumatic event in the present rather than the past. Although the goal of the study is to determine which therapies work best for women suffering from PTSD, experts agree that if the study is conclusive it eventually may be applied to tens of thousands of Iraq war veterans, male and female alike. (Scharnberg, 2005). While many soldiers are receiving help with their disorder, for some, the help comes too late and they are unable to cope or continue with their life. Since combat operations began in March 2003, 45 soldiers have killed themselves in Iraq, and an additional two dozen have committed suicide after returning home, the Army has confirmed. Mclemore, 2005). While these numbers are staggering some experts feel that the worst is yet to come. The problem for some is that they either do not know there is a problem or do not want anyone to know that they have a problem. The Army has recently begun screening of personnel that have recently returned from a deployment but that still does not help the thousands who have returned in previo us years. According to Veterans Affairs (VA) data, 9. 600 of the 360,000 soldiers discharged after fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan have received a provisional diagnosis of PTSD. Mclemore, 2005). As the military continues to struggle with helping veterans with PTSD, there is another problem that also lingers. Many soldiers are returning to Iraq and Afghanistan with mental illness and given anti-depressants to help with their problems. A 2004 Army report found that up to 17 percent of combat-seasoned infantrymen experienced major depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder after one combat tour to Iraq. Less than 40 percent of them had sought mental-health care. (Rogers, 2006). One problem lies in that many soldiers want to return to combat with their units and as long as they are medically cleared to go then they are permitted to go. The second problem is the medical professional basically being able to predict the future and how the deployment will affect the soldier returning to combat. Had these soldiers been drafted and put on medication and sent back to combat there would have been many questions asked. Since this is an all volunteer Army it is too often assumed that these soldiers will do whatever is asked of them. Think of the ethical questions that would arise from sending draftees back to war on medications. (Rogers, 2006). It is clear that the amount and rate of deployments is not going to slow down in the near future. Until the military, not just the Army, can come up with a way to screen soldiers before and after deployments, there will be a continuous rise in the amount of soldiers suffering from PTSD. Methodology In the research paper I will provide historical as well as statistical data from the previous wars the United States Military has been involved in. I will show how the military has failed to cope with this ever increasing problem and the impact it has had and will have on the future our military force. It has become obvious that men and women are becoming increasingly wary of entering our Armed Forces today because of the thought of deploying to Iraq, Afghanistan or some other country. I will use data that has already been collected from many sources, Veterans Affairs, military, etc, to substantiate these findings. Until the deployments slow down and we tart taking better care of our veterans this reluctance to join the Armed Forces is not going to get any better. Couple this with the ever decreasing benefits and the unwillingness of the people in charge to ensure that money is made available to care for the traumas of war people will continue to stay away from the military. I will also discuss the differences with PTSD in men and women and the types to therapies being used on both. Finally, the paper will discuss ways that the military can assist and support, not only soldiers with PTSD, but the family members that suffer along with them. References Department of Veterans Affairs Homepage. What is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? [online]. Available: http://www. ncptsd. va. gov/topics/war. html (2006, February 22). Mclemore, David. (2005, Dec 8). For troops, stress a lingering hazard. The Dallas Morning News. Nadelson, Theodore. Damage: War’s Awful Aftermath. In Trained to Kill: Soldiers at War, 89-103. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. 191pp. (U21. 5 . N33 2005) Rogers, Rick. (2006, March 19). Some troops headed back to Iraq are mentally ill. The San Diego Union Tribune. Scharnberg, Kirsten. (2005, March 28). Women GIs and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The Chicago Tribune. U. S. Government Accountability Office. VA Health: VA Should Expedite the Implementation of Recommendations Needed to Improve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Services. Washington, D. C. : U. S. Government Accountability Office, February 2005. 58pp. Available from http://www. gao. gov/new. items/d05287. pdf. Internet. How to cite Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Military, Papers Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Military Free Essays Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Military Proposal for MSA 685 Project Ronnie Heare Dr. Robert E. Weltzer Jr. We will write a custom essay sample on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Military or any similar topic only for you Order Now Table of Contents Abstract3 Problem Statement4 Purpose of Study4 Literature Review5 Methodology8 References9 Literature Review Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is becoming an ever increasing problem in today’s military. This disorder is nothing new and has affected veterans from World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and Desert Shield/Desert Storm. There are particularly good descriptions of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the medical literature on combat veterans of World War II and on Holocaust survivors. (Veterans Affairs Fact Sheet, 2006). But with the many deployments in the past several years to Iraq and Afghanistan, with many soldiers going over for the third or fourth deployments, the pressures mounting on today’s military has become too much for some to handle. The main difference between past wand present wars is the ever increasing number of women who are seeing combat on the front lines. Women are being tasked to fill more and more lethal combat roles as the war on terror continues and women appear to be more susceptible to PTSD than their male counterparts. Studies indicate that many of these women suffer from more pronounced and debilitating forms of PTSD than men, a worrisome finding in a nation that remembers how many traumatized troops got back from Vietnam and turned to drugs and violence, alcohol and suicide. (Scharnberg, 2005). The government is extremely concerned about this and has begun doing studies on how to combat the lingering effects of this disorder. Half of the women will be treated to long term therapy in which they will relive the traumatic events that led up to PTSD in hopes that their emotional distress will decrease over time and that their memory of the event is no longer traumatic. The other half of the women will be treated with a therapy that will focus on their life now and how to deal with the traumatic event in the present rather than the past. Although the goal of the study is to determine which therapies work best for women suffering from PTSD, experts agree that if the study is conclusive it eventually may be applied to tens of thousands of Iraq war veterans, male and female alike. (Scharnberg, 2005). While many soldiers are receiving help with their disorder, for some, the help comes too late and they are unable to cope or continue with their life. Since combat operations began in March 2003, 45 soldiers have killed themselves in Iraq, and an additional two dozen have committed suicide after returning home, the Army has confirmed. Mclemore, 2005). While these numbers are staggering some experts feel that the worst is yet to come. The problem for some is that they either do not know there is a problem or do not want anyone to know that they have a problem. The Army has recently begun screening of personnel that have recently returned from a deployment but that still does not help the thousands who have returned in previo us years. According to Veterans Affairs (VA) data, 9. 600 of the 360,000 soldiers discharged after fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan have received a provisional diagnosis of PTSD. Mclemore, 2005). As the military continues to struggle with helping veterans with PTSD, there is another problem that also lingers. Many soldiers are returning to Iraq and Afghanistan with mental illness and given anti-depressants to help with their problems. A 2004 Army report found that up to 17 percent of combat-seasoned infantrymen experienced major depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder after one combat tour to Iraq. Less than 40 percent of them had sought mental-health care. (Rogers, 2006). One problem lies in that many soldiers want to return to combat with their units and as long as they are medically cleared to go then they are permitted to go. The second problem is the medical professional basically being able to predict the future and how the deployment will affect the soldier returning to combat. Had these soldiers been drafted and put on medication and sent back to combat there would have been many questions asked. Since this is an all volunteer Army it is too often assumed that these soldiers will do whatever is asked of them. Think of the ethical questions that would arise from sending draftees back to war on medications. (Rogers, 2006). It is clear that the amount and rate of deployments is not going to slow down in the near future. Until the military, not just the Army, can come up with a way to screen soldiers before and after deployments, there will be a continuous rise in the amount of soldiers suffering from PTSD. Methodology In the research paper I will provide historical as well as statistical data from the previous wars the United States Military has been involved in. I will show how the military has failed to cope with this ever increasing problem and the impact it has had and will have on the future our military force. It has become obvious that men and women are becoming increasingly wary of entering our Armed Forces today because of the thought of deploying to Iraq, Afghanistan or some other country. I will use data that has already been collected from many sources, Veterans Affairs, military, etc, to substantiate these findings. Until the deployments slow down and we tart taking better care of our veterans this reluctance to join the Armed Forces is not going to get any better. Couple this with the ever decreasing benefits and the unwillingness of the people in charge to ensure that money is made available to care for the traumas of war people will continue to stay away from the military. I will also discuss the differences with PTSD in men and women and the types to therapies being used on both. Finally, the paper will discuss ways that the military can assist and support, not only soldiers with PTSD, but the family members that suffer along with them. References Department of Veterans Affairs Homepage. What is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? [online]. Available: http://www. ncptsd. va. gov/topics/war. html (2006, February 22). Mclemore, David. (2005, Dec 8). For troops, stress a lingering hazard. The Dallas Morning News. Nadelson, Theodore. Damage: War’s Awful Aftermath. In Trained to Kill: Soldiers at War, 89-103. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. 191pp. (U21. 5 . N33 2005) Rogers, Rick. (2006, March 19). Some troops headed back to Iraq are mentally ill. The San Diego Union Tribune. Scharnberg, Kirsten. (2005, March 28). Women GIs and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The Chicago Tribune. U. S. Government Accountability Office. VA Health: VA Should Expedite the Implementation of Recommendations Needed to Improve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Services. Washington, D. C. : U. S. Government Accountability Office, February 2005. 58pp. Available from http://www. gao. gov/new. items/d05287. pdf. Internet. How to cite Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Military, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Healthcare in USA And Canada for Perspective - myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about theHealthcare in USA And Canada for Perspective. Answer: The media has the power to shape the opinion and future of the population. However, the media sometimes uses this power negatively to shape the opinion of the population in a negative way. The media of USA and Canada spread the news of crisis in the public healthcare system in both the countries (Coburn). The effect of this news was adverse on the public healthcare system and the private healthcare was benefitted. Socio-economic status in healthcare is determined by the economic status of the patient and the amount of money he spends to attain quality healthcare. Whereas the Social view of healthcare talks about the collective attainment of healthcare. In this model, the society targets to avail the quality healthcare regardless of economic status of every individual (Yim et al.). As the level of healthcare in the under-developed or less-developed countries are below average, they need to apply several healthcare policies for the betterment of their status. Policies like merging the private and public healthcare system, providing free checkups or treatment of life threatening diseases in private hospitals can enhance the situation in those countries as well. These nations can also provide free treatment to the population having low socio economic status. This way, they will be able to improve the healthcare system from the lower most level. Powerful private sector of any stream has the ability to shape the future of others, associated with it. However, association of public sector is completely based on the grants provided by the government. Hence, the media chooses the private sector to shape their future and shows biased reporting in their favor. There are several instances in the world, where it is quite evident that the socio economic status is not required to attain better healthcare. A materialist political economical approach is better than alternate theoretical perspective that help the lower level of population to avail the equal opportunities for quality healthcare. This alternate view will help those people in these developed states, who are suffering from material and social deprivations (Coburn). References Coburn, David. "Health and health care: a political economy perspective."Staying alive: Critical perspectives on health, illness, and health care vol. 2 (2010): 65-91. Yim, Jun, et al. "Contribution of income-related inequality and healthcare utilisation to survival in cancers of the lung, liver, stomach and colon."J Epidemiol Community Healthvol. 66. no. 1 (2012): 37-40.

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Spain (All In Spanish) Essays - DraftFranklin Marshall College

Spain (All In Spanish) Espa?a se localiza el este de Portugal y el oeste del sur de la Francia. Es el oeste del Mar y el sur Mediterr?neos de la Bah?a de Biscat. Es el este del Oc?ano Atl?ntico y el oeste de las Islas de Balearic. Espa?a es separada de la Francia por las monta?as de Pyrenees. M?s que la mitad del pa?s se compone de monta?as. All? desiertos de seres y wetlands en Espa?a. Es generalmente un clima caliente aunque las monta?as puedan obtener la nieve. Espa?a tiene una monarqu?a constitucional. El Rey sirve como jefe del Estado. El no tiene un papel directo en las operaciones del gobierno pero ?l tiene un papel en normas de gobierno. El primer ministro es llamado al presidente del gobierno en Espa?a. El parlamento de marcas de Espa?a las leyes de pa?ses y la legislatura tienen m?s de 500 miembros. Espa?a tiene tambi?n dos sistemas del tribunal, civil y militar, los Jueces deciden todos casos. Juan Carlos lleg? a ser Rey de Espa?a en 1975 y ?l jugaron un papel magn?fico al cambio Espa?a de una dictadura a una democracia Durante los d?as tempranos de Espa?a Liberians ocup? mucho del pa?s. Ellos cultivaron y construyeron las aldeas y los pueblos. Algunos de estos pueblos desarrollados en las primeras ciudades en Espa?a aprecian Cartagena. Phoencians comenz? a establece las colonias y llev? un comercio que prosper?. Celtic's y los romanos vinieron tambi?n a Espa?a. La conquista romana de Espa?a comenz? durante las guerras de Punic y les tom? 200 a?os a conquista Espa?a. Roma conquist? tambi?n Portugal. Los alemanes invadieron tambi?n Espa?a as? como tambi?n Muslims. La invasi?n comenz? en 711. Muchas gente espa?ola lleg? a ser Muslim como resultado de la orden de Moorish. El Muslims influy? en Espa?a magn?ficamente y se puede ver en el trabajo de la arquitectura y la arte de Espa?a. Ellos construyeron muchos palacios del anuncio de mezquitas llamaron alocazars. En 1978 Espa?a aprob? una constituci?n nueva basada en principios democr?ticos. . La poblaci?n de Espa?a es 39.2 millones. Se compone de gente espa?ola, y ellos hablan Castilian el espa?ol. La religi?n primaria de Espa?a si Cat?lico de romano. La gente ha vivido en Espa?a para m?s de 100,000 a?os. Muchos grupos vinieron a Espa?a inclusive Celts, los griegos, LOS romanos, y los alemanes. Acerca de 90% de la poblaci?n vive en las ciudades. Estas ciudades son Madrid y Barcelona. La Capital de Espa?a es Madrid y la poblaci?n hay 2,984,576 personas. En las f?bricas de la ciudad, las tiendas, y las oficinas cierran para una tres interrupci?n del almuerzo de hora y permanecen abre hasta acerca de siete. Esto es una costumbre espa?ola vieja que tranquilo contin?a a?n en las ciudades modernas. La moneda de Espa?a es la Peseta. El cambio es un d?lar americano para 144 pesetas. Espa?a es uno de Europa's m?s pa?ses mas barato. Una persona famosa de Espa?a es el escritor de Don Quixote de la Mancha, que fue escrito por Miguel de Cervantes. Don Quixote es el cuento de un hombre viejo exc?ntrico que vive en un castillo en Barcelona. El ha estado leyendo los cuentos de caballeros y maidens y ha llegado a ser so?ar de delusional de uno de las hero?nas de cuentos, Dulcinea. El embarcar a salva Dulcinea, su maiden imaginario en la pena. El re?ne a una chica joven Kitri que ?l piensa es Dulcinea. El cuento est? acerca de c?mo cazas de Don despu?s que Kitri y eventualmente Don los sale al hallazgo su Dulcinea una vez m?s. Esto es uno de los pedazos m?s grande de la literatura espa?ola y se sabe mundo lejos tambi?n. EL Paintor m?s famouso espa?ol es Pablo Picasso. El es considerado al artista m?s grande del siglo 20th. El tuvo un estilo extraordinario que cambi? como ?l obtuvo m?s viejo. El nac?a en Malaga en el octubre 25th 1881 el hijo de Jose Ruiz Blasco, que era un maestro de la arte, y Maria Picasso. En la edad de diez ?l hizo su primera pintura y por el tiempo que ?l ten?a quince a?os de edad ?l entr? en Barcelona Escuela de bellas artes. El se asent? en Par?s en 1904. El tuvo muchos estilos

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Free Essays on But We See Jesus

But we See Jesus Text: Hebrews 2:5-9 Introduction: As a means of introducing this morning's message, allow me to give you a little material concerning the context of the passage. The Book of Hebrews is one of the most important and yet most difficult of the books of the Bible to grasp. The authorship is uncertain, however, most Fundamental Scholars agree that Paul is most likely to have been its author. It is interesting to me that, those who are not so fundamental almost always ascribe the authorship to someone other than Paul. Some say it was Barnabas, Some say it was Peter Others say it was written after all of the apostles had died away, by some strange person no one knows about anymore. I have come to the place that I just about determine whether a person is a theological liberal or fundamentalist based upon their view of the authorship of this book! We believe that Hebrews is written to a persecuted and scattered population of Jewish Christians. And the writer's desire is to encourage them in their faith by telling them about some BETTER THINGS! As you study through Hebrews you hear repeatedly about Better Things and New Things. A BETTER PRIESTHOOD A BETTER SACRIFICE A BETTER COVENANT A BETTER REST A BETTER FUTURE and so forth. In chapter 2, the author is writing of Jesus Christ, explaining how he is BETTER THAN THE ANGELS. Now, notice in our text a few points concerning man's present condition; His worthlessness - What is man? (vs. 6) His powerlessness - Lower than the Angels (vs. 7) His Helplessness - Not all things put under him (vs. 8) ***Man was created the crowning point of God's Creation, now he is so sinful and wicked that it is a wonder that God would even take note of him. ***Man was created with glory and honor. A being, unlike the angels, in that we were made in the image of God and for the express purpose of fellowship with God. Now, through sin and rebellion, we're just "lower t... Free Essays on But We See Jesus Free Essays on But We See Jesus But we See Jesus Text: Hebrews 2:5-9 Introduction: As a means of introducing this morning's message, allow me to give you a little material concerning the context of the passage. The Book of Hebrews is one of the most important and yet most difficult of the books of the Bible to grasp. The authorship is uncertain, however, most Fundamental Scholars agree that Paul is most likely to have been its author. It is interesting to me that, those who are not so fundamental almost always ascribe the authorship to someone other than Paul. Some say it was Barnabas, Some say it was Peter Others say it was written after all of the apostles had died away, by some strange person no one knows about anymore. I have come to the place that I just about determine whether a person is a theological liberal or fundamentalist based upon their view of the authorship of this book! We believe that Hebrews is written to a persecuted and scattered population of Jewish Christians. And the writer's desire is to encourage them in their faith by telling them about some BETTER THINGS! As you study through Hebrews you hear repeatedly about Better Things and New Things. A BETTER PRIESTHOOD A BETTER SACRIFICE A BETTER COVENANT A BETTER REST A BETTER FUTURE and so forth. In chapter 2, the author is writing of Jesus Christ, explaining how he is BETTER THAN THE ANGELS. Now, notice in our text a few points concerning man's present condition; His worthlessness - What is man? (vs. 6) His powerlessness - Lower than the Angels (vs. 7) His Helplessness - Not all things put under him (vs. 8) ***Man was created the crowning point of God's Creation, now he is so sinful and wicked that it is a wonder that God would even take note of him. ***Man was created with glory and honor. A being, unlike the angels, in that we were made in the image of God and for the express purpose of fellowship with God. Now, through sin and rebellion, we're just "lower t...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

The Airbus Way Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Airbus Way - Essay Example Moreover, this paper also comprehends regarding the unfairness of employees’ behaviour with the other members which have been mostly due to the improper distribution of authorization power. Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction 4 Main Findings 5 Lewis’ Cross Cultural Model 5 Hofstede's Cultural Model 7 Problems Related With Airbus Cultural Diversity 9 Failure Merger Planned Between Airbus’ Parent Company EADS and BAE System 11 Conclusion 12 Recommendations 13 References 14 Bibliography 17 Introduction Airbus SAS is a subsidiary company owned by European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS) which is considered as one of the leading European aerospace and defence service providing company one of the world’s largest aircraft manufacturers. It operates by focusing upon the customers’ needs and preferences relying upon the expertise of employees and technological leadership. Company offers several kinds of jet-liner products, including milita ry communication aircrafts, commercial airline aircrafts and transport aircrafts. Apart from these, the company also provides multi-role military air-lifters for various observation purposes, medical evacuations, marine patrols, carrying paratroopers and cargo transports. Moreover, company manufactures, develops and supports commercial aircrafts for over 100 seats (Airbus S.A.S., 2013). At present, Airbus also offers comprehensive as well as modern product lines which include superior facilities for passenger aircrafts comprising from 107 to 525 seating capacity. Several kinds of amenities are also offered through commercial aircrafts such as A320 single-aisle aircrafts, A330 or A340 long range aircrafts, A350 XWB next-generation family aircrafts and A380 double-decker family aircrafts. Additionally, it can be observed that in its operations, Airbus tends to expand its opportunities in present competitive commercial market and broaden its product ranges by implementing expert, high skilled employees within the military markets. Moreover, company also aims at expanding its business portfolio comprising freighter aircraft products with the expectation to set new standards of operations within the general aircraft manufacturing industry sectors (Airbus S.A.S., 2013). Main Findings Lewis’ Cross Cultural Model During 1990s, British multilingual person and cross-cultural communication expert, Mr. Richard Lewis created a cultural model which till date is used to help the evaluation of the differences among divergent cultures. This model has been widely used to deliver generalized evaluation upon cultural diversity that can assist leaders to regulate their leadership styles by fulfilling different cultural needs of their employees and the stakeholders at large. This model classifies cultural differences into three main categories, such as ‘Linear-active’, ‘Multi-active’ and ‘Reactive’ (Richard Lewis Communications, 2013). Figure: The Lewis Model (Richard Lewis Communications, 2013) According to the Lewis Model it has been observed that organisations which operate under the category of a linear active culture, are basically task oriented owing to which greater focus is rendered towards technical competencies and demonstration of facts before sentimental